Crime and punishment of the hottest photovoltaic i

2022-08-24
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"Crime" and "punishment" of China's photovoltaic industry

since this year, reports about China's photovoltaic enterprises deep in the mire and entering the "cold winter" have almost completed the production line with an annual output of 10000 liters of nano silver conductive ink and 100million pieces/year of RFID electronic labels, which is full of networks every day. Suntech Shi Zhengrong retreated to the second tier, Saiwei Peng Xiaofeng faced bankruptcy, many photovoltaic enterprises fell from huge wins to huge losses, and began to lay off a large number of staff For a moment, the photovoltaic market was full of sadness and panic

why did the sun set in just a few years for the booming sunrise industry in full swing in the past? Is it caused by the European debt crisis? Is it caused by the "double anti" of the United States and Europe? What have enterprises and governments done

photovoltaic enterprises: there is no largest, only bigger

with the global energy shortage and environmental pollution and other issues becoming increasingly prominent, photovoltaic power generation has become an emerging industry of general concern and key development by local governments because of its clean, safe, efficient and other characteristics, thus opening the prelude to the launch of photovoltaic projects and capacity expansion. China has quickly become the world's largest producer of solar panels, with one after another and almost crazy

blind investment and expansion did not stop even in the face of the "double anti" of the United States. Many enterprises turned a deaf ear to the high punitive tariffs imposed by the United States and once carried out suicide sales. They also had to expand production capacity at a loss, further aggravating overcapacity. Data shows that the global production capacity is about 100 gigawatts (GW), while the demand is only gigawatts

the disorderly and out of control expansion of production capacity has brought about a fierce international rebound. In the early stage, many companies in the world declared bankruptcy, including Q-Cells and Solon in Germany and solyndra and evergreen solar in the United States. In the process, the price of polysilicon has also experienced roller coaster ups and downs, from a maximum of more than $400/kg to a minimum of more than $20/kg

not only that, enterprises blindly focus on capacity expansion, but ignore the establishment of corresponding technical standards, quality standards, evaluation systems and other access thresholds, which not only creates a huge market foam, but also plunges this emerging industry into the quagmire of low-end

there is no doubt that the "double anti" in Europe and the United States is only the "last straw to overwhelm the camel". The rapid expansion of solar energy production capacity driven by credit is the culprit of this "photovoltaic crisis". China's demand gap for copper alloy functional new material products is becoming larger and larger. According to professional analysis, half of the world's solar energy capacity needs to be shut down before the solar industry recovers from the "crisis" of excess capacity

local governments: after the "Suntech myth", local governments have issued "solar energy industry planning", investing a lot of money, land and people, acting as an important driver of the expansion of the new energy industry. According to statistics, more than 600 cities in China regard photovoltaic as a strategic emerging industry, and polysilicon furnaces are blooming everywhere as steel smelting in those days

previously, if there was an industry that could inspire local governments to pursue more enthusiasm than real estate, it must be photovoltaic. Local governments need political achievements, and naturally hope that enterprises can grow rapidly; Photovoltaic enterprises can increase a lot of taxes and employment, and make a great contribution to GDP, so the two sides coincide and strive to expand

under the strong thrust of the government, especially the loose credit policy for the photovoltaic industry, enterprises seem to be addicted to drugs, indulge in fast work and crazy expansion. In just a few years, China's photovoltaic capacity accounted for more than half of the world, and China, the world's top ten photovoltaic module manufacturers, ranked among the top five

after experiencing the glory of the moment, photovoltaic enterprises have fallen to this miserable situation. In addition to the factors of enterprises, local governments also have inescapable. It is precisely because of the strong leadership and fanatical promotion of the government that the photovoltaic industry is moving towards a painful quagmire step by step. It can be said that "success is also Xiaohe, failure is also Xiaohe"

Li Junfeng, deputy director of the Energy Research Institute of the national development and Reform Commission, said: in China, local governments are not real governments, they are more like enterprises. Chinese photovoltaic enterprises have inevitably become the guardians of local governments, and their hands and feet are increasingly bound. When there were signs of "double anti" in the United States, the government did not take any substantive protective action against enterprises

the photovoltaic industry is currently facing a deep reshuffle, which is determined by the market law. Local governments should also be very cautious in helping and supporting photovoltaic enterprises. Naturally, everyone is happy to help enterprises overcome difficulties and achieve rebirth, but it may also further aggravate overcapacity, delay the opportunity of industry adjustment, and bring greater pain to enterprises

industrial chain status: timid, the rest of the

photovoltaic industry is a complete industrial chain from polysilicon, solar cells, application systems to special equipment. The polysilicon required by Chinese photovoltaic enterprises mostly relies on foreign imports in the early stage, and the target market of their products is mainly concentrated in Europe and the United States and other overseas regions. Both ends of the industrial chain are controlled by others, and there are too few controllable links, which has also become one of the important reasons for China's "photovoltaic crisis"

in terms of raw materials, due to the rapid expansion of production capacity, the price of global polysilicon in the early stage turned upside down, and many photovoltaic enterprises took advantage of it, paying a heavy economic price

in terms of market, affected by the continuous European debt crisis and the United States punitive import tariffs, the European and American markets, the main sales areas, are in a weak state; In China, although the government encourages large enterprises, little progress has been made in the early stage on issues such as electricity prices and mergers, and domestic demand is not strong enough. Domestic and foreign difficulties have slowed down global demand in the past year, and the price of battery panels has fallen by 30%, resulting in the sudden death of many small enterprises. The business situation of general large enterprises such as Suntech and Savi has also turned sharply downward, from huge wins to huge losses, and they have been saddled with huge corporate debts

of course, the Chinese government has also been working hard to absorb part of the excess capacity of domestic solar panels by increasing the installed capacity. Some analysts predict that China will become the second largest solar panel Market in the world after Germany this year, and the installed capacity of solar panels will reach 4-5 gigawatts, twice that of last year

Reflection on the phenomenon: control the "restless hand"

China implements a socialist market economic system with Chinese characteristics, such as social environment temperature. Since it is a market economy, we should let the market law play a key role and give full play to the self-regulation function of the "invisible hand" of the market. The government should contribute to creating a good investment environment and a fair competition environment; We are committed to good management and regulation in the administrative and public areas where market rules do not work

this "photovoltaic crisis" has brought us profound enlightenment:

first, local governments should distinguish the functional boundaries, do not interfere too much in the operation of enterprises, let alone make decisions and plans for enterprises, and forget what they should do on earth

second, local officials should establish a correct view of political achievements, act according to economic laws, and do not blindly advance and make great achievements

Third, when planning strategic industries, the government must clarify the threshold and make a reasonable layout to prevent local governments from rushing forward; It is more important to make sustained and steady progress in policies

in fact, there are many such lessons. As one of the government's strategic leading industries in previous years, the wind power industry has long been hard to find in the 2011 national development and Reform Commission's Guiding Catalogue for industrial restructuring. Zhonghua glass () Department

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